The introduction of the next accreditation system of graduate medical education in 2013 promised movement to assessment based on outcomes. As surgeons, our performance is ultimately measured by our patient outcomes. To date, limited work has been performed to evaluate the effects of education policy reform using traditional health services research methodologies. Our panelists are leading the way in utilizing observational, qualitative, and implementation science methods to evaluate and inform education practices and policy. We are eager to learn how they are leveraging the health services research toolbox to further inform best practices in surgical education.